In this paper, the history of the ecumenical movement in Yunnan's ethnic minority areas is analyzed from the holistic historic view and the perspective of applicationism, the educational activities implemented by the western Christian church as an exotic culture in these areas are studied and thought deeply, and its effect and enlightenment on the modern school educational development of these areas are discussed, and finally the diversified forms and special characteristics of the two different cultures in communication are reviewed and rethought.
Journal of Geographical Sciences,2013年23(06):963-977 ISSN：1009-637X
[Pan Yujun; Sun Jun] Yunnan Normal Univ, Coll Tourism & Geog Sci, Kunming 650500, Peoples R China.;[Pan Yujun] Yunnan Normal Univ, Minist Educ, Key Lab Educ Informat Nationalities, Kunming 650500, Peoples R China.;[Wu Youde] Yunnan Normal Univ, Yunnan Chinese Language & Culture Coll, Kunming 650500, Peoples R China.;[Tang Maolin] Nanjing Normal Univ, Sch Geog Sci, Nanjing 210023, Jiangsu, Peoples R China.;[Sun Jun] Yunnan Normal Univ, Coll Social Dev, Kunming 650500, Peoples R China.
[Pan, YJ] Yunnan Normal Univ, Coll Tourism & Geog Sci, Kunming 650500, Peoples R China.
strategic directions for geography;geographical sciences;earth surface sciences;geographical construction;human-economic geography;China
Understanding the Changing Planet: Strategic Directions for the Geographical Sciences(UCP),published by the National Research Council(USA),and its comments in The Professional Geographer propose that uppercase and plural "Geographical Sciences"(GS) is the strategic direction for geography in the next decade for better understanding of our rapidly changing planet. According to these comments,UCP valued technologies and tools excessively("task"),and did not pay much attention to methodology("discipline"). Actually,both"task" and "discipline" are geographical wings,especially in the time of "big science".Enlightenment from UCP and its comments is the strategic direction that should be balanced between "task" and "discipline",GS should be a three-dimensional construct of a disciplinary system,methodology,and technologies and tools,and this system should be scientific humanism based on scientific spirit and directed by humanism. During the last 60 years,Chinese geographers devoted themselves to GS,including practice and theory. Obviously progress and outlook are proposed as interdisciplinary GS,Earth Surface Sciences(ESS) and Geographical Construction(GC). The disciplinary system of GS is very complex,and is composed of such human knowledge domains as sciences,technologies,engineering,and philosophy. The main mission is to research the open,complex,and macro earth system(not only scientifically,but also humanistically),and one significant methodology is "comprehensive integration of qualitative and quantitative means"(CIQQM). At the same time,another changing direction in Chinese geography is Human-Economic Geography(HEG).